رابطه افسردگی مادران با نشانه‌های افسردگی و اضطراب کودکان دارای اختلال یادگیری خاص با واسطه استرس والدینی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه روانشناسی، دانشگاه سلمان فارسی کازرون، شیراز، ایران.

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد روانشناسی عمومی دانشگاه ازاد شیراز دانشکده اقتصاد و مدیریت، شیراز، ایران

10.22098/jld.2022.10740.2021

چکیده

اضطراب، افسردگی و استرس، از مهم‌ترینمشکلات مادران دارای فرزند با اختلالات یادگیری است که عوامل بسیاری در ایجاد آن نقش دارند. اهداف: این پژوهش با هدف رابطه افسردگی مادران با نشانه‌های افسردگی و اضطراب کودکان دارای اختلال یادگیری خاص با واسطه استرس والدینی انجام شد.این پژوهش از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش توصیفی از نوع همبستگی است.
مواد و روش ها: جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل کلیه مادران دارای کودک دارای اختلالات یادگیری بودند کهدر ماه‌های مهر تا آذر سال ۱۳۹۹ به مراکز اختلالات یادگیری شهر شیراز مراجعه کردند. نمونه پژوهش 270 نفر از مادران دانش‌آموزان دارای اختلالات یادگیری خاص بود که به روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند. داده‌های پژوهش با استفاده از فرم کوتاه مقیاس استرس والدینی ، مقیاس تجدیدنظر شده اضطراب و افسردگی کودکان و مقیاس افسردگی بک جمع‌آوری شد.
یافته ها: پس از جمع‌آوری داده‌ها، تحلیل آن‌ها با نرم‌افزار Spss-26 و Amos-24 و با روش آماری ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و معادلات ساختاری انجام گرفت. مدل مفروض در جامعه پژوهش از برازندگی لازم برخوردار بود. نتایج تحلیل‌ها نشان داد که افسردگی مادران28 درصد از واریانس استرس والدینی را تبیین کردند در مرتبه دوم متغیرهای برون‌زاد با اضافه شدن متغیر میانجی استرس والدینی36 درصد از واریانس اضطراب و افسردگی کودکان را تبیین کردند.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به الگوی ساختاری تأیید شده می‌توان به یک درک آسیب‌شناسی روانی از آسیب‌پذیری روانشناختی فرزندان با توجه به افسردگی و استرس والدین پی برد و با انجام مداخلات مبتنی بر شواهد چندبعُدی می‌توان از بروز آسیب‌های روان‌شناختی پیشگیری کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between maternal depression and depressive symptoms and anxiety in children with special learning disorders mediated by parental stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Moslem Abbasi 1
  • Shamila Gheirati 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Kazeron Salman Farsi University, Shiraz, Iran
2 M .A of General Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Science Research Center, Shiraz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mothers' depression and depressive symptoms and anxiety in children with special learning disorders due to parental stress. Methods & Materials: This study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive in terms of correlation. The child had learning disabilities who referred to the Learning Disabilities Centers in shiraz from October to December 2016. The sample consisted of 270 mothers of students with special learning disabilities who were selected by convenience sampling. Research data were collected using the short form of the Parental Stress Scale, the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression and the Beck Depression Scale.
Results: After data collection, they were analyzed using Spss-26 and Amos-24 software and Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equations. The assumed model had the necessary fit in the research community. The results showed that maternal depression explained 28% of the variance of parental stress. In the second place, exogenous variables explained 36% of the variance of anxiety and depression in children by adding the mediating variable of parental stress.
Conclusion: According to the approved structural model, a psychological pathology can be understood from the psychological vulnerability of children due to parental depression and stress, and by performing interventions based on multiple dimensions, psychological injuries can be prevented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • depression
  • anxiety
  • stress
  • mothers
  • learning disabilities
دابسون، ک و محمدخانی، پ. (1386). مختصات روانسنجی پرسشنامه افسردگی بک -2 در مبتلایان به اختلال افسردگی اساسی در دوره بهبودی نسبی. آرشیو توانبخشی (توانبخشی)، 8 (29)، 80-86. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=65031 .
رضایی فرد، ا. (1400). نقش تاب­آوری و سبک­ های فرزندپروری در پیش بینی استرس والدینی مادران دانش ­آموزان با اختلال بیش ­فعالی/ کمبود توجه . روانشناسی مدرسه و آموزشگاه،10(4)، 73- 85. http://jsp.uma.ac.ir/article_1454.html
صیدی، م. (1397). نقش رضایت و کیفیت خانواده در کاهش اضطراب و افسردگی کودکان با تعدیل گری استرس والدینی. پژوهش­ های مشاوره (تازه ­ها و پژوهش ­های مشاوره)، 17(66 )، 177-199. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=499102
سادوک، ب. ج.، سادوک، و. آ و روئیز، پ. (2015). خلاصه روان پزشکی کاپلان و سادوک (ترجمه فرزین رضاعی)، فروردین 1321، چاپ دوم، جلد سوم، تهران: انتشارات ارجمند. https://www.arjmandpub.com/Book/1209
شیرزادی، پ.، فرامرزی، س.، قاسمی، م و شفیعی، م(1393). بررسی روایی و اعتبار فرم کوتاه شاخص استرس فرزند پروری(PSI-SF). مجله رویش روانشناسی، 3 (9)، 109-97. http://ensani.ir/file/download/article/20151028181536-9974-17.pdf
فتی، ل.، بیرشک، ب.، عاطفه وحید، م و دابسون، ک. (1384). ساختارهای معناگذاری / طرحواره ­ها، حالت­ های هیجانی و پردازش شناختی اطلاعات هیجانی: مقایسه دو چارچوب مفهومی. مجله روانپزشکی و روانشناسی بالینی ایران (اندیشه و رفتار)، 11(3), 312-326. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=41834
موسوی، س. (1397). نقش استرس والدینی و ادراک مثبت در پیش بینی رضایت زناشوییِ مادران دارای کودکان با نیازهای ویژه و عادی. روانشناسی افراد استثنایی، 8(32 )، 153-179. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=508467
نامجویان شیرازی، ف و کشاورز، ر. (1392). بررسی مقایسه­ ای میزان شدت فشار روانی و رضایت زناشویی بین مادران کودکان عقب مانده ذهنی تربیت ­پذیر و مادران کودکان عادی. زن و جامعه (جامعه شناسی زنان)، 4(4)، 131-146 https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=220900
References
Abbo, C., Kinyanda, E., Kizza, R. B., Levin, J., Ndyanabangi, S., & Stein, D. J. (2013). Prevalence, comorbidity and predictors of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents in rural north -eastern Uganda. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 7(1), 21. [DOI.org/10.1186/1753-2000-7-21]
Abidin, R. R. (1995). The parenting stress index professional manual .Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Alesi, M. (2014). Depression, Anxiety at School and Self-Esteem in Children with Learning Disabilities. Journal of Psychological Abnormalities in Children, 3(3), 1-9. [DOI.org/10.4172/2329-9525.1000125]
Alesi, M., Rappo, G., & Pepi, A. (2014). Depression, anxiety at school, and self-esteem in children with learning disabilities. Journal of Psychology Abnormal Child, 3(3), 1-8. [DOI.org/10.4172/2329-9525.1000125]
Allison, V. L., Nativio, D. G., Mitchell, M., Ren, D., & Yuhasz, J. (2014). Identifying symptoms of depression and anxiety in students in the school setting. The Journal of School Nursing, 30, 165-172. [DOI.org/10.1177/1059840513500076]
Aro, T., Eklund, K., Eloranta, A.-K., Närhi, V., Korhonen, E., & Ahonen, T. (2018). Associations Between Childhood Learning Disabilities and Adult-Age Mental Health Problems, Lack of Education, and Unemployment. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 52(1), 71-83. [DOI.org/10.1177/0022219418775118]
Bakhshipour Roodsari, A., Dezhkam, M., Mehryar, A., & Birashk, B. (2004). Structural relations between the dimensions of anxiety and depression disorders and dimensions of the three-part model. Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology of Iran. 9(4), 63-76. http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-152-en.html
Barroso, N. E., Mendez, L., Graziano, P. A., & Bagner, D. M. (2018). Parenting Stress through the Lens of Different Clinical Groups: a Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 46(3), 449–461. [DOI.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0313-6].
Bartelet, D., Ansari, D., Vaessen, A., & Blomert, L. (2014). Cognitive subtypes of mathematics learning difficulties in primary education. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(3), 657-670.
Beck, A. T., & Streer, R. A. (1993). Beck Depression Inventory. The Psychological Corporation: New York.
Bentler, P. M. & Chou, C. (1987) Practical Issues in Structural Modeling. Sociological Methods and Research, 16 (1), 78- 117. [Doi.org10.1177/0049124187016001004].
Besharat MA. Parental perfectionism and children's test anxiety. Psychological Reports 2003; 93(3Pt2): 1049-55. [DOIorg/10.2466/pr0.2003.93.3f.1049]
Bronsard, G., Alessandrini, M., Fond, G., Loundou, A., Auquier, P., Tordjman, S., & et al. (2016). The prevalence of mental disorders among children and adolescents in the child welfare system: A Systematic review and Meta -analysis. Medicine (Baltimore), 95(7):e2622. [DOI.org/10.1097/md.0000000000002622]
Brown, J., McDonald, M., Besse, C., Manson, P., McDonald, R., Rohatinsky, N., & Singh, M. (2020). Anxiety, mental illness, learning disabilities, and learning accommodation use: A cross-sectional study. J Prof Nurs, 36(6), 579-586.[DOI.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2020.08.007]
CarballalMariño, M., GagoAgeitos, A., Ares Alvarez, J., Del Rio Garma, M., GarcíaCendón, C., GoicoecheaCastaño, A., & Pena Nieto, J. (2018). Prevalence of neurodevelopmental, behavioral and learning disorders in paediatric primary care. Anales de Pediatría, 89(3), 153- 161.
Children's Mental Health Facts. Children and adolescents with anxiety disorder. National Mental Health Information Center. https://www.cdc.gov/childrensmentalhealth/data.html
Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A revised child anxiety and depression scale. Behaviour research and therapy, 38(8), 835-855.
de Ross, R. L, Gullone, E., & Chorpita, B. F. (2002). The revised child anxiety and depression scale: a psychometric investigation with Australian youth. Behaviour Change, 19(2), 90-101. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1375/bech.19.2.90
Duff, F. J., Hulme, C., &Snowling, M. J. (2016). Learning Disorders and Dyslexia. In H. S. Friedman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Mental Health (Second Edition) (pp. 5-11). Oxford: Academic Press.
Forkosh Baruch, A., & Meer, Y. (2019). Academic support model for post-secondary school students with learning disabilities: student and instructor perceptions AU - Lipka, Orly. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 23(2), 142-157.
Fortes, I. S., Paula, C. S., Oliveira, M. C., Bordin, I. A., de Jesus Mari, J., Rohde, L. A. (2016). A cross -sectional study to assess the prevalence of DSM -5 specific learning disorders in representative school samples from the second to sixth grade in Brazil. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 25(2), 195 –207. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1007/s00787-015-0708-2
Goldman, L. (2019). What is depression and what can I do about it? https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/artic les/8933.php.
Görker, I., Bozatli, L., Korkmazlar, Ü. YücelKaradağ, M., Ceylan, C., Söğüt, C., Aykutlu, H. C., Subay, B., & Turan, N. (2017). The Probable Prevalence and Sociodemographic Characteristics of Specific Learning Disorder in Primary School Children in Edirne. Noro psikiyatriarsivi, 54(4), 343-349.[DOI.org/10.5152/npa.2016.18054]
Hatch, D. J., Potter, G. G., Martus, P., Rose, U., &Freude, G. (2019). Lagged versus concurrent changes between burnout and depression symptoms and unique contributions from job demands and job resources. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 24(6), 617–628.
Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2014). Academic procrastination, emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy, and GPA: a comparison between students with and without learning disabilities. J Learn Disabil, 47(2), 116-124. [DOI.org/10.1177/0022219412439325]
Hirsch, C. R., Krahé, C., Whyte, J., Loizou, S., Bridge, L., Norton, S., & Mathews, A. (2018). Interpretation training to target repetitive negative thinking in generalized anxiety disorder and depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86(12), 1017–1030.
Hullmann, S. E., Wolfe-Christensen, C., Ryan, J. L., Fedele, D. A., Rambo, P. L., Chaney, J. M., & Mullins, L. L. (2010). Parental Overprotection, Perceived Child Vulnerability, and Parenting Stress: A Cross-Illness Comparison. J ClinPsychol Med Settings, 17, 357–365
Ki, Y. W., & Joanne, C. C. Y. (2014). Stress and marital satisfaction of parents with children with disabilities in Hong Kong. Psychology, 5(5), 349.
Kozina, A. (2014). Developmental and time-related trends of anxiety from childhood to early adolescence: Two-wave cohort study. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11, 546-559. [DOI.org/10.1080/17405629.2014.881284]
Maag, J. W., & Reid, R. (2010). Depression among students with learning disabilities: assessing the risk. J Learn Disabil, 39(1), 3-10.
Maehler, C., &Schuchardt, K. (2016). Working memory in children with specific learning disorders and/or attention deficits. Learning and Individual Differences, 49, 341-347. [DOI.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.05.007]
Mammarella, I. C., Ghisi, M., Bomba, M., Bottesi, G., Caviola, S., Broggi, F., Nacinovich, R. (2016). Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development. J Learn Disabil, 49(2):130-9.
Moens, M. A., Weeland, J., Van der Giessen, D., Chhangur, R. R., & Overbeek, G. (2018). In the Eye of the Beholder? Parent-Observer Discrepancies in Parenting and Child Disruptive Behavior Assessments. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 46(6), 1147–1159. [DOI.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0381-7]
Moritz, S., Irshaid, S., Beiner, A., Hauschildt, M., &Miegel, F. (2019). Acceptance and efficacy of a metacognitive self-help intervention in an Arabic-speaking mixed patient sample with depression and/or obsessive–compulsive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 10(1), 2043808718820683. [DOI.org/10.1177/2043808718820683]
Nelson, J. M., & Gregg, N. (2010). Depression and Anxiety among Transitioning Adolescents and College Students with ADHD, Dyslexia, or Comorbid ADHD/ Dyslexia. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(3), 244-254.
Pereira, J., Vickers, K., Atkinson, L., Gonzalez, A., Wekerle, C. & Levitan, R. (2012). Parenting stress mediates between maternal maltreatment history and maternal sensitivity in a community sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36, 433– 437. [DOI.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.01.006]
Russell, G., Ryder, D., Norwich, B., & Ford, T. (2015). Behavioural Difficulties That Co-occur With
Specific Word Reading Difficulties: A UK Population-Based Cohort Study. Dyslexia (Chichester, England), 21(2), 123-41
Ranney, M. L., Pittman, S. K., Dunsiger, S., Guthrie, K. M., Spirito, A., Boyer, E. W., & Cunningham, R. M. (2018). Emergency department text messaging for adolescent violence and depression prevention: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Psychological Services, 15(4), 419–428.
Rezaeefard, A. (2022). The role of resilience and parenting styles in predicting parental stress of mothers of students with ADHD / Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Psychology and institutions, 10(4), 73-85. http://jsp.uma.ac.ir/article_1454.html?lang=en
Sahoo, M. K., Biswas, H., Padhy, S. K. (2015). Psychological co -morbidity in children with specific learning disorders. J Family Med Prim Care, 4(1), 21 –5. [DOI.org/10.4103/2249-4863.152243]
Sevindir, H. K., Yazici, C., & Yazici, V. (2014). Mathematics Anxiety: A Case Study for Kocaeli University. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 152, 637-641 [DOI.org/10.30998/formatif.v12i1.10435]
Soper, D. S. (2021). A-priori Sample Size Calculator for Structural Equation Models [Software]. Available from https://www.danielsoper.com/statcalc
Schreiber, A. (2015). Loghotherapy in educational systems. Romanian Review of Social Sciences, 5(9), 3-20. https://www.academia.edu/29025933/LOGOTHERAPY_IN_EDUCATIONAL_SYSTEMS
Shirzadi P., Faramarzi, S., Qasemi, M., & Shafiei, M. (2014). Investigating Validity and reliability of Parenting Stress Index– short form among Fathers of normal child under 7 years old. Rooyesh, 3(9), 97-109. http://ensani.ir/file/download/article/20151028181536-9974-17.pdf
Walda, S. A. E., & van Weerdenburg, M. (2014). Progress in reading and spelling of dyslexic children is not affected by executive functioning. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(12), 3431-3454.
Weyand, C. (2010). Parenting a child with behavior problems: dimension of religiousness that influence parental stress and sense of compeence. Doctoral dissertation. Dissertation. Indiana State University. Department of Psychology. http://hdl.handle.net/10484/1177