تدوین برنامه و مقایسهی اثر بخشی سه شیوهی آموزش مستقیم، آگاهی واجشناختی و ترکیبی بر درک مطلب خواندن دانشآموزان دبستانی دارای اختلال خواندن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار روانشناسی، دانشگاه پیام نور کنگاور

2 دانشیار روانشناسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

3 دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اردبیل، ایران

jld-3-1-92-7-4

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر تدوین برنامه و مقایسهی اثر بخشی سه شیوهی آموز ش مستقیم، آگاهی واج شناختی و
آموزش ترکیبی بر درک مطلب خواندن دانشآموزان دبستانی دارای اختلال خواندن است . جامعه ی آماری این
پژوهش شامل دانشآموزان دختر و پسر پایهی سوم، چهارم و پنجم دبستان شهرستان کرمانشاه است که دارای
اختلال یادگیری خواندن هستند که از مدارس به مراکز توانبخشی اختلالهای یادگیری ارجاع داده شده اند و در
1390 مشغول به تحصیل بودهاند. بیست نفر به عنوان نمونهی آماری از بین جامعه ی آماری ، به - سال تحصیلی 91
تصادف انتخاب شدند سپس این دانشآموزان به طور نمونهگیری تصادفی ساده در چهار گروه پنج نفری جایگزین
و آزمون پیشرفت تحصیلی (WISC-R) شدند. از ابزارهای اندازهگیری شامل آزمون هوش وکسلر مقیاس کودکان
خواندن و درک مطلب شفیعی و همکاران استفاده شده است. سه گروه آزمایشی هر کدام به مدت 20 جلسه، در هر
هفته دو جلسه 40 دقیقهای آموزش خاص خود را دریافت نمودند و گروه کنترل غیر از آموزش مرسوم مدرسه ای
آموزش خاص دیگری دریافت نکرد. از هر چهار گروه پیشآزمون و پسآزمون به عمل آمد. تحلیل واریانس یک
طرفه نتایج نشان داد که آموزش آگاهی واجشناسی مؤثر بوده است، اما آموزش مستقیم و آموزش ترکیبی در بهبود
درک مطلب خواندن دانشآموزان دبستانی دارای اختلالهای یادگیری خواندن مؤثر نبودهاند. بر این اساس نتیجه
گیری می شود که آموزش آگاهی واجشناسی نسبت به دو شیوه دیگر در پیشرفت درک مطلب خواندن
دانشآموزان دبستانی اثربخش و سودمندتر بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

-

نویسندگان [English]

  • B Karimi 1
  • H Alizadeh 2
  • E Soleymani 3
چکیده [English]

-

شفیعی، بیژن؛ توکل، سمیرا؛ علینیا، لیلا؛ مراثی، محمدرضا؛ صداقتی، لیلا و فروغی، رقیه ( 1387 ). طراحی
و ساخت آزمون غربالگری تشخیص اختلال در خواندن در پایههای اول تا پنجم دانشآموزان مقطع
..53-60 ،(2) ابتدایی در شهر اصفهان. مجلهی علوم پزشکی دانشگاه تهران، 17
در ایران. مجلهی پژوهشهای (WISC-R) شهیم، سیما ( 1371 ). کاربرد مقیاس هوش وکسلر کودکان
.78-92 ،( 3 و 4 ) روانشناسی، 1
صداقتی، لیلا؛ فروغی، رقیه؛ شفیعی، بیژن و مرآتی، محمدرضا ( 1389 ). بررسی میزان شیوع نارسا خوانی
.44-61 ،(1) در دانشآموزان طبیعی پایهی اول تا پنجم دبستانهای اصفهان. شنواییشناسی، 19
کریمی، بهروز؛ علیزاده، حمید؛ فرخی، نورعلی و سعدیپور، اسماعیل ( 1390 ). مقایسه اثربخشی سه شیوه
آموزش مستقیم، آگاهی واجشناختی و ترکیبی بر کاهش مشکلات املانویسی دانش آموزان دبستانی .
.255-266 ، فصلنامهی ایرانی کودکان استثنایی، 41
Allbritten, D., Mainzer, R. & Ziegler, D. (2004). Will students with disabilities be
scapegoats for school failures? Educational Horizons, 82, 153–60.
Alexander, P. A., Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (1998). A perspective onstrategy research:
progress and prospects. Educational Psychology Review, 10, 129 - 154.
Anna-Lind P., Kristen M. M., Jennifer J. M., Tracy B., Viveca B., Julie Koch-McD.,
Roxana R. & Haley S., (2009) Brief experimental analysis of early reading
interventions. Journal of School Psychology, 47, 215–243.
Blachman, B. A. (2000). Phonological awareness. In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D.
Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research, 3, 483-502.
Carlson, C. D. & Francis, D. J. (2002). Increasing The Reading Achievement Of At- Risk
Children Throguh Direct Instruction: Evaluation Of The Rodeo Institute For Teacher
Excellence (Rite). Journal Of Education For Studentplaced At Risk,7, 141-166.
Cataldo, S. & Ellis, N. (2005). Interactions in the development of spelling, reading and
phonological skills, 11(2), 86-1090.
Cowles, M. & Davis, C. (1982). On the Origins of the .05 Level of Statistical Significance.
American Psychologist, 37, (5), 553-558.
Cross, R, W., Rebarber, T. & Wilson, S. F. (2002). Student gains in a privately managed
network of charter schools using direct instruction. Journal of direct instruction, 2, 3 –
21.
Dale, carpenter. (2001). spelling error profiles of able and disabled readers.journal of
learning disabelitis,16(2), 1983.
Denton, C. A. & Mathes, P. G. (2003). Intervention for struggling readers: Possibilities and
challenges. In B. Foorman (Ed.), Preventing and remediating reading difficulties.
Baltimore: York Press.
Dian, K., Richard, K. & Nancy, M. (2005). Special Education and Direct Instruction: An
Effective Combination. Journal of Direct Instruction, 5, 1–36.
Eden, G. F., Stein, J. F., Wood, H. M. & Wood, F. B. (1994). Differences in eye
movements and reading problems in dyslexic and normal children. Vision Research,
34(10), 1345-1358.
Flores, M. M. & Ganz, J. B. (2007). Effectiveness of direct instruction for teaching
statement inference, use of facts, and analogies to students with developmental
disabilities and reading delays. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities,
22, 244 - 251.
Foorman, B. R. (2003) Preventing and remediating reading difficulties. Baltimore: York
Press.
Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Fletcher, J. M., Schatschneider, C. &Mehta, P. (1998). The
role of instruction in learning to read. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 37–55.
Foulin, J. N. (2005). Why is letter-name knowledge such a good predictor of learning to
read? Reading and Writing, 18(2), 129–155.
Gary, A. T. (2004). Instruction and Assissment for struggling writers: Evidence – Based
practice. University of washangton Alert Issue 10, Summer.
Grossen, B. (2004). success of a direct instruction model at a secondary level school with
high risk students, reading and writing qurterly, 20, 161-178.
Guttorm, T. K., Leppänen, P. H. T. & Poikkeus, A. (2005). Brain Event-Related Potentials
(ERPs) measured at birth predict later language development in children with and
without familial risk for dyslexia. Cortex, 41, 291−303.
Iversen, S., Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2005). The effects of varying group size on
the Reading Recovery approach to preventative early intervention. Journal of Learning
Disabilities, 38, 456– 472.
Karen L.P. & Rosemary, T. (2000). Phonological Processing, Not Inhibitory Control,
Differentiates ADHD and Reading Disability. Journal of the American Academy of
Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(4), 485-494.
Keith, M. (2002). Picking up the pace: A summary. Auckland, New Zealand: Ministry of
Education.
Kinder, D., Kubina, R. &Marchand, L. N. (2005). Special education and direct instruction:
An effective combination. Journal of Direct instruction, 5, 1 – 36.
Kronenberger, W. G. & Meyer, R. G. (2001). The child clinicians handbook (2ndEd.).
Boston:AllynandBacon.
Lyon, G. R, Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Wood, F. B. & Schulte, A.
(2001). Rethinking learning disabilities. In C. E. Finn, Jr., A. J. Rotherham, & C. R.
Hokanson, Jr. (Eds.). Rethinking special education for a new century, 259–287.
Washington, DC: Thomas B.Fordham Foundation and Progressive Policy Institute.
Janice, F. R, William, E. T. & Keith, T. G. (2007).. Explicit instruction in phonemic
awareness and phonemically based decoding skills as an intervention strategy for
struggling readers in whole language classrooms. Reading and writing, 21, 349–369.
Jennifer, A. D., John, R. B., Claudia, P. F. & Robert, F. A. (2009). Effects of teaching
syllable skills instruction on reading achievement in struggling middle school readers.
Literacy Research and Instruction, 48, 14-27.
John, S. T., Natali, O. B. & Jennifer, L. R. (2007). Reading disability in adjudicated youth:
prevalence rates, current models, tradational and innovative treatments. J. aggression
and violent behavior, 12, 376- 392.
Lonigan, C .J. (2003). Development and promotion of emergent literacy skills in children
at- risk of reading difficulties. In B. R. Foorman (Ed.), Preventing and Remediating
Reading Difficulties (pp.23-50). Baltimore, MD: York.
Margaret, M., Flores, M. & Kaylor. (2007). The Effects of a Direct Instruction Program on
the Fraction Performance ofMiddle school students At – risk for failure in mathematics,
Journal of Instructional Psychology, 34, 84-94.
Martinet, C., Valdois, S. & Fayol, M. (2004). Lexical orthographic knowledge develops
from the beginning of literacy acquisition.Cognition, 91, 11–22.
McNamara, D. S. (Ed.). (2007). Reading comprehension strategies: Theories, interventions,
and technologies. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Mehring, T. (2010). Direct Instruction and the Education of Children with Special Needs
International Encyclopedia of Education, 2010, 584-587.
McNaughton, S. (2002). Meeting of minds. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media.
Murphy, P. K., Wilkinson, I. A. G., Soter, A. O., Hennessey, M. N. & Alexander, J. F.
(2009). Examining the effects of classroom discussion on students’ comprehension of
text: a meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 740 - 764.
Nagy, W. (2006). Why vocabulary instruction needs to belong termand comprehensive.
Chap. 2. In: Hiebert, E.H., Kamil,M.L. (Eds.), Teaching and Learning Vocabulary:
Bringing Research to Practice. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ,.27- 44.
Paris, S. G., Lipson, M. Y. & Wixson, K. K. (1983). Becoming a strategic reader.
Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 293-316.
Pearson, P. D. (2009). The roots of reading comprehension instruction. In S. E. Israel, & G.
G. Duffy (Eds.), Handbook of research on reading comprehension (3-31). New York:
Routledge.
Pearson, P. D. & Dole, J. A. (1987). Explicit comprehension instruction: a review of
research and a new conceptualization of instruction. Elementary School Journal, 88,
151-165.
Petra G., Reinhard R., Christian G., Uwe-Jens G., Uta V., Daniela F., Hans-Joachim.,
Werner A. & Bernhard B., (2002). Phonological processing in dyslexi children: a study
combining functional imaging and event related potentials .Neuroscience Letters, 318,
1, 5-8.
Pressley, M. & Harris, K. R. (2006). Cognitive strategies instruction: from basic research to
Classroom instruction. In P. A. Alexander, & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of
educational psychology (2nd ed.). (265-286) Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E, Jenner, A. R., Lee, J. R., Katz, L. & Frost, S. J. (2001a).
Neuroimaging studies of reading development an dreadin disability Learning
Disabilities Research and Practice, 16, 240-340.
Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Jenner, A. R., Lee, J. R., Katz, L. & Frost, S. J. (2001b).
Neurobiological Studies of Reading and Reading Disability. Journal of Communication
Disorders, 34, 479-492.
Robert, S. (2004). Motor skills, automaticity and developmental dyslexia: A review of the
research literature. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 301–324.
Rubba, J. (2003). Phonological awareness skills and spelling skills English. Department
(linguistics) Cal poly state university san luis Obispo.
Rune, Andreassen. & Ivar, Braten.,(2010). Implementation and effects of explicit reading
comprehension instruction in fifth-grade classrooms. Learning and Instruction, 3(8), 1-
18.
Sandak, R., Mencl, W. E., Frost, S. J. & Pugh, K. R. (2004). The neurobiological basis of
skilled and dimpaired reading: Recent findings and new directions. Scientific Studies of
Reading, 8, 273-393.
Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for
reading problems at any level. New York: Knopf.
Shaywitz, S. E., Fletcher, J. M., Holahan, J. M., ScImeider, A. E., Marchione, K. E. &
Stuebing, K. K. (1999). Persistence of dyslexia: The Connecticut Longitudinal Study at
adolescence. Pediatrics, 104, 1351-1359.
Scarborough, Hollis S. (2005). Developmental relationships between language and reading:
Reconciling a beautiful hypothesis with some ugly facts. In H. W. Catts, & A. G. Kamhi
(Eds.), The connections between language and reading disabilities (pp. 3−24). Mahwah,
NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Simos, P. G., Breier, J. I., Fletcher, J. M., Foorman, B. R., Mouzaki, A., & Papanicolaou,
A. C. (2001). Age-related changes in regional brain activation during phonological
decoding and printed word recognition. Developmental Neuropsychology, 19, 191−204.
Solan, H. A., Shelley-Tremblay, J., Ficarra, A., Silverman, M., & Larson, S. (2003). Effect
of attention therapy on reading comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16,
556−563.
Stein, J. (2001). The magnocellular theory of developmental dyslexia, 7(1), 12-36.
Stokard, jean. (2010) Promoting Reading Achievement and Countering the "Fourth-Grade
Slump": The Impact of Direct Instruction on Reading Achievement in Fifth Grade.
Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk. Philadelphia, 15(3), 218.
Thompson, B. (1998). Statistical significance and effect size reporting: Portrait of a
possible future. Research in the Schools, 5(2), 33-38.
Torgesen, J. K. (2002). The prevention of reading difficulties. Journal of School
Psychology, 40(1), 7–26.
Torgesen, J. K. (2004). Lessons learned from research on interventions for students who
have difficulty learning to read. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.), The voice of
evidence in reading research. Baltimore: Brookes.
Treiman, R. (2005). Knowledge about letters as a foundation for reading and spelling. In: P.
G. Aaron & R. M. Joshi, (Eds.), Handbook of orthography and literacy (pp. 581–599).
Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2003). The Reading Recovery approach to preventive
early intervention: As good as it gets? Reading Psychology, 24(5),337–360.
Weinstein, C. E. & Mayer, R. E. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In M.
C.Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 315e327). New York:
Macmillan.
Wolf, M., Bowers, P. G. & Biddle, K. (2000a). Naming speed processes. Timing, and
reading: A conceptual review. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(4), 387–407.